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E
December 1997
Order Number: 290207-012
8
n
Flash Electrical Chip-Erase
1 Second Typical Chip-Erase
n
Quick-Pulse Programming Algorithm
10 s Typical Byte-Program
2 Second Chip-Program
n
100,000 Erase/Program Cycles
n
12.0 V 5% V
PP
n
High-Performance Read
90 ns Maximum Access Time
n
CMOS Low Power Consumption
10 mA Typical Active Current
50 A Typical Standby Current
0 Watts Data Retention Power
n
Integrated Program/Erase Stop Timer
n
Command Register Architecture for
Microprocessor/Microcontroller
Compatible Write Interface
n
Noise Immunity Features
10% V
CC
Tolerance
Maximum Latch-Up Immunity
through EPI Processing
n
ETOXTM Nonvolatile Flash Technology
EPROM-Compatible Process Base
High-Volume Manufacturing
Experience
n
JEDEC-Standard Pinouts
32-Pin Plastic Dip
32-Lead PLCC
32-Lead TSOP
(See Packaging Spec., Order #231369)
n
Extended Temperature Options
Intel's 28F010 CMOS flash memory offers the most cost-effective and reliable alternative for read/write
random access nonvolatile memory. The 28F010 adds electrical chip-erasure and reprogramming to familiar
EPROM technology. Memory contents can be rewritten: in a test socket; in a PROM-programmer socket; on-
board during subassembly test; in-system during final test; and in-system after sale. The 28F010 increases
memory flexibility, while contributing to time and cost savings.
The 28F010 is a 1024 kilobit nonvolatile memory organized as 131,072 bytes of eight bits. Intel's 28F010 is
offered in 32-pin plastic dip or 32-lead PLCC and TSOP packages. Pin assignments conform to JEDEC
standards for byte-wide EPROMs.
Extended erase and program cycling capability is designed into Intel's ETOXTM (EPROM Tunnel Oxide)
process technology. Advanced oxide processing, an optimized tunneling structure, and lower electric field
combine to extend reliable cycling beyond that of traditional EEPROMs. With the 12.0 V V
PP
supply, the
28F010 performs 100,000 erase and program cycles--well within the time limits of the quick-pulse
programming and quick-erase algorithms.
Intel's 28F010 employs advanced CMOS circuitry for systems requiring high-performance access speeds,
low power consumption, and immunity to noise. Its 90 ns access time provides zero wait-state performance
for a wide range of microprocessors and microcontrollers. Maximum standby current of 100 A translates into
power savings when the device is deselected. Finally, the highest degree of latch-up protection is achieved
through Intel's unique EPI processing. Prevention of latch-up is provided for stresses up to 100 mA on
address and data pins, from 1 V to V
CC
+ 1 V.
With Intel's ETOX process technology base, the 28F010 builds on years of EPROM experience to yield the
highest levels of quality, reliability, and cost-effectiveness.
28F010 1024K (128K X 8) CMOS
FLASH MEMORY
Information in this document is provided in connection with Intel products. No license, express or implied, by estoppel or
otherwise, to any intellectual property rights is granted by this document. Except as provided in Intel's Terms and Conditions of
Sale for such products, Intel assumes no liability whatsoever, and Intel disclaims any express or implied warranty, relating to
sale and/or use of Intel products including liability or warranties relating to fitness for a particular purpose, merchantability, or
infringement of any patent, copyright or other intellectual property right. Intel products are not intended for use in medical, life
saving, or life sustaining applications.
Intel may make changes to specifications and product descriptions at any time, without notice.
The 28F010 may contain design defects or errors known as errata. Current characterized errata are available on request.
Contact your local Intel sales office or your distributor to obtain the latest specifications and before placing your product order.
Copies of documents which have an ordering number and are referenced in this document, or other Intel literature, may be
obtained from:
Intel Corporation
P.O. Box 5937
Denver, CO 80217-9808
or call 1-800-548-4725
or visit Intel's website at http://www.intel.com
Copyright Intel Corporation 1996, 1997.
* Third-party brands and names are the property of their respective owners.
E
28F010
3
CONTENTS
PAGE
PAGE
1.0 APPLICATIONS ..............................................5
2.0 PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION .......................8
2.1 Integrated Stop Timer ..................................8
2.2 Write Protection ...........................................9
2.2.1 Bus Operations......................................9
2.2.1.1 Read...............................................9
2.2.1.2 Output Disable ................................9
2.2.1.3 Standby ........................................10
2.2.1.4 Intelligent Identifier Operation .......10
2.2.1.5 Write .............................................10
2.2.2 Command Definitions ..........................10
2.2.2.1 Read Command............................11
2.2.2.2 Intelligent Identifier Command ......11
2.2.2.3 Set-Up Erase/Erase Commands ...12
2.2.2.4 Erase Verify Command.................12
2.2.2.5 Set-Up Program/Program
Commands ..................................12
2.2.2.6 Program Verify Command ............12
2.2.2.7 Reset Command...........................13
2.2.3 Extended Erase/Program Cycling........13
2.2.4 Quick-Pulse Programming Algorithm ...13
2.2.5 Quick-Erase Algorithm.........................13
3.0 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ........................16
3.1 Two-Line Output Control ............................16
3.2 Power Supply Decoupling ..........................16
3.3 V
PP
Trace on Printed Circuit Boards...........16
3.4 Power-Up/Down Protection ........................16
3.5 28F010 Power Dissipation .........................16
4.0 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS..................18
4.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings ........................18
4.2 Operating Conditions..................................18
4.3 Capacitance ...............................................18
4.4 DC Characteristics--TTL/NMOS
Compatible--Commercial Products...........19
4.5 DC Characteristics--CMOS Compatible--
Commercial Products ................................20
4.6 DC Characteristics--TTL/NMOS
Compatible--Extended Temperature
Products ....................................................22
4.7 DC Characteristics--CMOS Compatible--
Extended Temperature Products ...............23
4.8 AC Characteristics--Read-Only
Operations--Commercial and Extended
Temperature Products...............................25
4.9 AC Characteristics--Write/Erase/Program
Only Operations --Commercial and
Extended Temperature Products ...............27
4.10 AC Characteristics--Alternative CE#-
Controlled Writes-- Commercial and
Extended Temperature..............................31
4.11 Erase and Programming Performance......32
5.0 ORDERING INFORMATION..........................33
6.0 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION .......................33
28F010
E
4
REVISION HISTORY
Number
Description
-007
Removed 200 ns Speed Bin
Revised Erase Maximum Pulse Count for Figure 4 from 3000 to 1000
Clarified AC and DC Test Conditions
Added "dimple" to F TSOP Package
Corrected Serpentine Layout
-008
Corrected AC Waveforms
Added Extended Temperature Options
-009
Added 28F010-65 and 28F010-90 speeds
-------- ------
Revised Symbols, i.e., CE, OE, etc. to CE#, OE#, etc.
-010
Completion of Read Operation Table
Labelling of Program Time in Erase/Program Table
Textual Changes or Edits
Corrected Erase/Program Times
-011
Minor changes throughout document
-012
Removed 65 ns speed bin
Removed TSOP package
Added Extended Temperature options
Modified
AC Test Conditions
Modified
AC Characteristics
E
28F010
5
1.0
APPLICATIONS
The 28F010 flash memory provides nonvolatility
along with the capability to perform over 100,000
electrical chip-erasure/reprogram cycles. These
features make the 28F010 an innovative alternative
to disk, EEPROM, and battery-backed static RAM.
Where periodic updates of code and data tables are
required, the 28F010's reprogrammability and
nonvolatility make it the obvious and ideal
replacement for EPROM.
Primary applications and operating systems stored
in flash eliminate the slow disk-to-DRAM download
process. This results in dramatic enhancement of
performance and substantial reduction of power
consumption--a consideration particularly important
in portable equipment. Flash memory increases
flexibility with electrical chip erasure and in-system
update capability of operating systems and
application code. With updatable code, system
manufacturers can easily accommodate last-minute
changes as revisions are made.
In diskless workstations and terminals, network
traffic reduces to a minimum and systems are
instant-on. Reliability exceeds that of electro-
mechanical media. Often in these environments,
power interruptions force extended re-boot periods
for all networked terminals. This mishap is no
longer an issue if boot code, operating systems,
communication protocols and primary applications
are flash resident in each terminal.
For embedded systems that rely on dynamic
RAM/disk for main system memory or nonvolatile
backup storage, the 28F010 flash memory offers a
solid state alternative in a minimal form factor. The
28F010 provides higher performance, lower power
consumption, instant-on capability, and allows an
"eXecute in place" (XIP) memory hierarchy for code
and data table reading. Additionally, the flash
memory is more rugged and reliable in harsh
environments where extreme temperatures and
shock can cause disk-based systems to fail.
The need for code updates pervades all phases of
a system's life--from prototyping to system
manufacture to after sale service. The electrical
chip-erasure and reprogramming ability of the
28F010 allows in-circuit alterability; this eliminates
unnecessary handling and less reliable socketed
connections, while adding greater test,
manufacture, and update flexibility.
Material and labor costs associated with code
changes increases at higher levels of system
integration--the most costly being code updates
after sale. Code "bugs," or the desire to augment
system functionality, prompt after sale code
updates. Field revisions to EPROM-based code
requires the removal of EPROM components or
entire boards. With the 28F010, code updates are
implemented locally via an edge connector, or
remotely over a communcation link.
For systems currently using a high-density static
RAM/battery configuration for data accumulation,
flash memory's inherent nonvolatility eliminates the
need for battery backup. The concern for battery
failure no longer exists, an important consideration
for portable equipment and medical instruments,
both requiring continuous performance. In addition,
flash memory offers a considerable cost advantage
over static RAM.
Flash memory's electrical chip erasure, byte
programmability and complete nonvolatility fit well
with data accumulation and recording needs.
Electrical chip-erasure gives the designer a "blank
slate" in which to log or record data. Data can be
periodically off-loaded for analysis and the flash
memory erased producing a new "blank slate."
A high degree of on-chip feature integration
simplifies memory-to-processor interfacing. Figure 3
depicts two 28F010s tied to the 80C186 system
bus. The 28F010's architecture minimizes interface
circuitry needed for complete in-circuit updates of
memory contents.
The outstanding feature of the TSOP (Thin Small
Outline Package) is the 1.2 mm thickness. TSOP is
particularly suited for portable equipment and
applications requiring large amounts of flash
memory.
With cost-effective in-system reprogramming,
extended
cycling capability, and true nonvolatility,
the 28F010 offers advantages to the alternatives:
EPROMs, EEPROMs, battery backed static RAM,
or disk. EPROM-compatible read specifications,
straightforward interfacing, and in-circuit alterability
offers designers unlimited flexibility to meet the high
standards of today's designs.